Kurd , member of an ethnic and linguistic group living in the Taurus Mountains of southeastern Anatolia , the Zagros Mountains of western Iran , portions of northern Iraq , northeastern Syria , and western Armenia , and other adjacent areas. The Kurds are thought to number from 25 million to 30 million, including communities in Armenia, Georgia , Kazakhstan , Lebanon , Syria, and Europe, but sources for this information differ widely because of differing criteria of ethnicity , religion, and language; statistics may also be manipulated for political purposes. The traditional Kurdish way of life was nomadic , revolving around sheep and goat herding throughout the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands of Turkey and Iran. Most Kurds practiced only marginal agriculture. The enforcement of national boundaries beginning after World War I —18 impeded the seasonal migrations of the flocks, forcing most of the Kurds to abandon their traditional ways for village life and settled farming; others entered nontraditional employment. The prehistory of the Kurds is poorly known, but their ancestors seem to have inhabited the same upland region for millennia. Most Kurds are Sunni Muslims, and among them are many who practice Sufism and other mystical sects. Despite their long-standing occupation of a particular region of the world, the Kurds never achieved nation-state status. Their reputation for military prowess has made them much in demand as mercenaries in many armies. The sultan Saladin , best known to the Western world for exploits in the Crusades , epitomizes the Kurdish military reputation.

The Complex Gender Politics of Kurdistan

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Australian Government travel advice for Iraq. Do not travel. Travel advice level RED. up-to-date local advice and support throughout this difficult period. Do not travel to Iraq, including the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, due to.

The present study attempts to analysis the spatial transformations in the urban environment scale by utilizing the natural step foresight approach in the context of urban environment indicators. To obtain this goal, the methods applied herein included descriptive-analytical studies, document and questionnaire in the frame of Delphi model and software analyzes. Initial discussions were held with 50 academic elites and executives in Saqqez city as the statistical population, followed by the identification of 78 variables in the frame of 16 general classifications.

The results showed that the obtained fill rate was equal to According to the findings, the integrated urban environmental management index ME4 with scores had uppermost direct impact on other variables. Moreover, the index of development and promotion of urban recycling regulations with 5,, calculated raw values presented the most indirect impact on other variables.

Strefa Historii

After graduating college in , I wanted to teach in the Middle East. Somehow, through various connections in the region, I found myself working in a private elementary school in Iraqi Kurdistan. I arrived ignorant, but ready to learn. While I was there, I discovered a world that was entirely new to me, and I explored various facets of the society I was living in. It was mind-blowing! I was completely out of my comfort zone, and thus open to all of the stunning, horrible, and marvelous wonders of Kurdistan.

Kurd, member of an ethnic group concentrated in a contiguous area including Kurdish society was the tribe, typically led by a sheikh or an aga, whose rule was in anticipation of the withdrawal of U.S. troops from the region at a later date.

A chronology of key events:. Article 64 of the Treaty gives Kurds living in the Mosul vilayet the option of joining a future independent Kurdistan. The Treaty of Sevres is not ratified by the Turkish parliament. A new Iraqi constitution recognises Kurdish “national rights” and Mullah Mustafa Barzani returns from exile. The KDP complains of increasing repression. Autonomy granted. The accord recognises Kurdish as an official language and amends the constitution to state that: “the Iraqi people is made up of two nationalities, the Arab nationality and the Kurdish nationality.

Mullah Mustafa Barzani appeals to the US for aid. Mullah Mustafa Barzani rejects the agreement, which would have left the oilfields of Kirkuk under Iraqi government control, and calls for a new rebellion.

Women on the Rise in Kurdistan

The case concerned an asylum request submitted by a Turkish couple of Kurdish ethnicity, which was refused by the Commissioner General for Refugees and Stateless Persons CGRA , due to lack of credibility. The husband had escaped Turkey, in order to avoid military conscription and persecution due to his political affiliations. More specifically, the applicant had not elaborated on the reasons of his draft evasion, which was found not to amount to conscientious objection to military service.

The CGRA also failed to properly address the fact that the applicant indeed had not completed his military service. In this connection, it was observed that the applicant did not want to participate in the military, as this could mean his engagement in armed conflict against the Kurdish rebellious forces.

In Iraqi Kurdistan, in we began to have a form of self-rule after decades of dictatorship under Saddam Hussein. This was later recognized.

CNN Here’s some background information about the Kurdish people. Kurds do not have an official homeland or country. Most reside within countries in the Middle East including northern Iraq , eastern Turkey, western Iran and small portions of northern Syria and Armenia. Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what’s happening in the world as it unfolds.

Kurdish people show their support for the upcoming referendum for independence of Kurdistan at a rally on September 21, , in Erbil, Iraq. Population: approximately million some Kurds reside outside of Kurdistan. Read More. Kurds have never achieved nation-state status, making Kurdistan a non-governmental region and one of the largest stateless nations in the world. Portions of the region are recognized by two countries: Iran, where the province of Kordestan lies; and northern Iraq, site of the autonomous region known as Kurdistan Regional Government KRG or Iraqi Kurdistan.

The Peshmerga is a more than ,strong national military force which protects Iraqi Kurdistan , and includes female fighters. It calls for the recognition of new independent states, including an autonomous Kurdistan. It is never ratified. In the final treaty marking the conclusion of World War I, the Allies drop demands for an autonomous Turkish Kurdistan.

Kurds – Marriage and Family

Please contact customerservices lexology. In Iraq, different labour laws apply depending on where a company is located. Kurdistan recently began applying the Iraqi Labour Law, but the Kurdish Parliament has yet to legally adopt it. In addition, instructions and regulations issued by the respective ministries clarify, expand or otherwise amend the two labour laws.

These instructions and regulations are not always published or made available to the general public without enquiring at the ministries. Foreign workers must obtain a work and residency permit before they can work.

Kurdistan region tax regime – As a semi-autonomous region in Northern Iraq, the Kurdistan region has introduced certain laws and practices that differ from the.

Share via:. When viewing Iran, the locus of international attention remains fixed on the quarrelsome condition of U. The domestic political landscape in Iran, specifically the numerous ethnic and sectarian minorities in the country, is also beginning to draw more attention. Through collective displays of peaceful activism to organized campaigns of violence, a number of movements purporting to stand for the interests of ethnic and sectarian minority communities who see themselves as victims of state-directed oppression are increasingly capturing the spotlight.

This article explores the circumstances behind the rise of PJAK in the context of Kurdish identity and nationalism in Iran, the range of tactics and operations employed by PJAK, and weighs the impact of Middle East geopolitics on Kurdish militancy in Iran. The rugged terrain remains a PKK stronghold. Having abandoned a number of unilateral cease-fires with Ankara over the years, the PKK regrouped and returned to armed struggle following the U.

The federalization of Iraq, which elevated the political status of Iraqi Kurds, emboldened the cause of Kurdish nationalism in the region, serving to inspire Kurds in Iran to take up arms against Tehran sometime in to achieve self-rule. Threatened by the prospect of a resurgent Kurdish nationalism, both Turkey and Iran have targeted the region through airstrikes and heavy artillery, and deployed special operations forces to root out Kurdish insurgents representing both the PKK and PJAK.

As a result, Iranian Kurds of all faiths tended to support the Iranian revolution that ousted the Shah in The fledgling Islamist regime, however, adopted a similarly harsh plan for suppressing the aspirations of Iranian Kurds, prompting a mass armed uprising that was eventually crushed. Accused of engaging in terrorist activities, Kurdish activists, including individuals with no ties to PJAK or other militants, are often detained and executed by the regime on terrorism and sedition charges.

Having exhausted all attempts to achieve self-rule for their community in Iran through peaceful means, Iranian Kurds, in the eyes of PJAK, have been left with little choice but to take up arms.

On Kurdish Culture

Join over organisations already creating a better workplace. You can download this cultural profile in an easy-to-read PDF format that can be printed out and accessed at any time. The figure of the total population of each country is drawn from the global estimates listed in the CIA World Factbook , unless otherwise stated.

It also confirms the Kurdish parliament’s annulment of reduced sanctions for ‘​honour crimes’ (dating back to ). Despite this progress, several laws violating.

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Employment & labour law in Iraq

From to , they helped overthrow the regime of Saddam Hussein, battled al-Qaeda , and pushed the Islamic State out of northern Iraq and Syria. In recent weeks, some of these same fierce fighters have been violently clashing with Turkish troops in the Syrian Kurdish enclave of Afrin. Reports of chemical weapons and a high civilian death toll are now emerging from the conflict zone. Hundreds of thousands of people have been displaced.

For Kurdish Iraqis, social organisation is more community orientated than family Women traditionally move into the house of their husband at marriage and come under the control of their in-laws when they marry. Dating and Marriage.

Situation Update. Keep watching this page for updates on the current situation in the Kurdistan Region. For information on what the coronavirus is and how to protect yourself against it, see Coronavirus : What you should know. To keep the Kurdistan Region as safe as possible from the coronavirus, the following measures have been put in place by the KRG and relevant ministries. Iraqi citizens can return home via Ibrahim Khalil Border Crossing, but foreign nationals have to ger permission from the Ministry of Interior.

Iraqi citizens can travel to Turkey only for medical purposes, trade and study.

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